GEODE – Cyberstability Index Final Report – Paris Call

GEODE – Cyberstability Index Final Report – Paris Call

Cyber Peace Institute
10 November 2021

Building a Cyberstability Index

The Cyber Peace Institute has published this report elaborated in partnership with GEODE and The Hague Center for Strategic Studies as part of Working Group 5 of the Paris Call for Trust and Security in Cyberspace.

Working Group 5’s report presents a methodology to understand how the implementation of normative, legal, operational and technical measures, or the lack thereof, contribute to stability in cyberspace and ultimately to cyberpeace. It also outlines various key findings and challenges that emerged throughout the process, such as the lack of accessible data relating to cyberstability.

The Paris Call is a multistakeholder initiative that was launched by the French government at the Paris Peace Forum in November 2018. The CyberPeace Institute co-leads Working Group 5 on Building a Cyberstability Index with colleagues from GEODE (Géopolitique de la Datasphère) and the Hague Centre for Strategic Studies (HCSS).

Read the full report here

Partager l'actualité
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn

Round Table “Digital Sovereignty: Discourses and Practices” Oct. 20, 2021

Round Table “Digital Sovereignty: Discourses and Practices” Oct. 20, 2021

Event

Speakers

Since the 1990s, the growth of data flows and the broader digital transformation were often described as important drivers and accelerators of a global integration and the formation of a post-territorial world. However, this vision of an open and networked world quickly came up against geopolitical realities. Authoritarian states – in particular Russia and China – were the first to assert in the 2000s their desire to exercise their regal power in the digital domain. Over the past decade or so, this idea has spread throughout the world, taking very different forms from one country or region to another. The concept of “digital sovereignty” has emerged as the catalyst for this new strategic posture of States, but it gives rise to many and sometimes antagonistic discourses. Far from being a neutral and universal concept, “digital sovereignty” appears rather as a protean representation used by national and international actors to legitimize policies and practices, and to spread their values in the digital space.

            For more than two years, the GEODE center (Geopolitics of the Datasphere) at the University of Paris 8 and the “Discourses and Practices of Digital Sovereignty” project at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg have brought together some forty researchers in the humanities, social sciences and computer science to establish a panorama of the different approaches to “digital sovereignty” around the world. The results of these discussions will be published in an international book to be released in 2022.

We invite you to come and discover this collective work, during a round table with some of the authors on Wednesday, October 20, 2021 – 6:00 pm to 7:30 pm.

The event will take place in a hybrid way :

  • On site at the Condorcet Campus (Centre des Colloques, Salle 100, 2 rue des Fillettes 93300 Aubervilliers). Covid certificate mandatory
  • In videoconference (link sent upon registration)

Among the speakers:

  • Frédérick Douzet (Prof. Dr.), Professor at the French Institute of Geopolitics (Paris 8 University), GEODE director;
  • Georg Glazse (Prof. Dr.), Professor at Erlangen-Nürnberg University;
  • Rogier Creemers (Dr.), Associate Professor at Leiden University;
  • Amael Cattaruzza (Prof. Dr.), Professor at the French Institute of Geopolitics (Paris 8 University);
  • Alix Desforges (Dr.), Postdoctoral student at GEODE;
  • Max Münßinger (M.A.), PhD candidate at Erlangen-Nürnberg University;
  • Clotilde Bômont (M.A.), Research fellow at GEODE, PhD candidate at Panthéon-Sorbonne University;
Share
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn

Loqman Salamatian, Frédérick Douzet, Kavé Salamatian & Kevin Limonier “The geopolitics behind the routes data travel: a case study of Iran”

Loqman Salamatian, Frédérick Douzet, Kavé Salamatian & Kevin Limonier “The geopolitics behind the routes data travel: a case study of Iran”

Journal of Cybersecurity
17 September 2021

Authors

Read the article co-authored by Loqman Salamatian, Frédérick Douzet, Kavé Salamatian et Kevin Limonier “The geopolitics behind the routes data travel: a case study of Iran” in the Journal of Cybersecurity.

Abstract: “In November 2019, in the wake of political demonstrations against the regime, Iran managed to selectively cut off most traffic from the global Internet while fully operating its own domestic network. It seemingly confirmed the main hypothesis our research had led us to, based on prior observation of data routing: Iran’s architecture of connectivity enables selective censorship of international traffic. This paper examines, through the case of Iran, how states can leverage the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) as a tool of geopolitical control and what are the trade-offs they face. This question raises a methodological question that we also address: how the analysis of BGP can infer and document these strategies of territorialization of cyberspace. The Internet is a network of networks where each network is an autonomous system. Autonomous systems (ASes) are independent administrative entities controlled by a variety of actors such as governments, companies and universities. Their administrators have to agree and communicate on the path followed by packets travelling across the Internet, which is made possible by BGP. Agreements between ASes are often confidential but BGP requires neighbouring ASes to interact with each other in order to coordinate routing through the constant release of connectivity update messages. These messages announce the availability (or withdrawal) of a sequence of ASes that can be followed to reach an IP address prefix. In our study, we inferred the structure of Iran’s connectivity through the capture and analysis of these BGP announcements. We show how the particularities of Iran’s BGP and connectivity structure can enable active measures, such as censorship, both internally and externally throughout the network. We argue that Iran has found a way to reconcile a priori conflicting strategic goals: developing a self-sustaining and resilient domestic Internet, but with tight control at its borders. It thus enables the regime to leverage connectivity as a tool of censorship in the face of social instability and as a tool of regional influence in the context of strategic competition.”

Partager l'actualité
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn

GEODE at the 34th International Geographical Congress

GEODE at the 34th International Geographical Congress

IGC
19 August 2021

Authors

On Wednesday, August 18, several GEODE researchers presented the results of their research during the 34th edition of the International Geographical Congress.

From 12:30 to 1:30 pm, Amaël Cattaruzza chaired the first part of the panel “Geopolitics of the Datasphere” which focused on the politics of data:

  • Clotilde Bomont and Amael Cattaruzza – “From a technical Component to a geopolitical object : cloud computing, a security issue for France”.
  • Charlotte Escorne – “Strategic issues of 5G deployment in French-speaking Africa”.
  • Ilan Scialom – “Bringing the concept of coopetition into the field of political geography: the example of Israel and Saudi Arabia in digital security”.
  • Margot François – “Analyzing the Cuban connection: several ‘digital spaces’ for a geopolitical approach”.

From 3:00 to 4:00 p.m. (GMT), Alix Desforges chaired the second part of the panel on the theme “Mapping the Routes of the Internet: Data, Topologies, Power” which included the following presentations:

  • Louis Pétiniaud, Loqman Salamatian and Colin Gérard – “On a collaborative effort to map the internet”
  • Loqman Salamatian, Louis Pétiniaud and Kavé Salamatian – “The journey, not the destination matters: Untangling data and sovereignty in the Far West”
  • Hugo Estecahandy – “The geopolitical stakes for cryptocurrencies in Russia through the analysis of their mining industries in Eastern Siberia”
Share the news
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn

Kevin Limonier & Marlène Laruelle “Beyond “hybrid warfare”: a digital exploration of Russia’s entrepreneurs of influence”

Kevin Limonier & Marlène Laruelle “Beyond “hybrid warfare”: a digital exploration of Russia’s entrepreneurs of influence”

POST-SOVIET AFFAIRS
19 August 2021

Author

Read the article co-authored by Marlène Laruelle and Kévin Limonier “Beyond “hybrid warfare”: a digital exploration of Russia’s entrepreneurs of influence” for Post-Soviet Affairs, Volume 37, Issue 4.

Abstract : “This article argues that to capture Russia’s influence abroad, one needs to comprehend the country’s “gray diplomacy” as a neoliberal realm open to individual initiatives. We define “entrepreneurs of influence” as people who invest their own money or social capital to build influence abroad in hopes of being rewarded by the Kremlin . We test this notion by looking at both famous and unknown entrepreneurs of influence and their digital activities. We divide them into three broad categories based on their degree of proximity to the authorities: the tycoons (Yevgeny Prigozhin and Konstantin Malofeev), the timeservers (Alexander Yonov and Alexander Malkevich), and the frontline pioneers (the Belgian Luc Michel). An analysis of the technical data documenting their online activities shows that some of these initiatives, while inscribed into Moscow’s broad aspirations to great powerness, are based on the specific agendas of their promoters, and thus outlines the inherent limits of Moscow’s endeavors.”

Partager l'actualité
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn

GEODE researchers in the special issue “From cyberspace to the datasphere: strategic challenges of the digital revolution”

GEODE researchers in the special issue “From cyberspace to the datasphere: strategic challenges of the digital revolution”

Journal of Cyber Policy
17 August 2021

Authors

Take a look at the special issue of the Journal of Cyber Policy which contains a selection of papers published in French by Herodote in June 2020 :

  • “Mapping the spread of Russian and Chinese contents on the French-speaking African web” co-authored by Frédérick Douzet, Kevin Limonier, Selma Mihoubi and Elodie René.
  • “Free and open source software in the new digital public policies in Russia” by Marie-Gabrielle Bertran.
  • “The strategic surprise of Russian information operations on social media in 2016 in the United States: mapping a blind spot”
    by Camille Francois & Herb Lin.
  • “Cryptocurrencies and processing power in Russia: a new strategic territory in eastern Siberia?” by Hugo Estecahandy & Kevin Limonier.
  • “Cyberspace is used, first and foremost, to wage wars: proliferation, security and stability in cyberspace.” by Frédérick Douzet & Aude Gery.
Partager l'actualité
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn

Charlotte Escorne & Hugo Estecahandy at the IGU’s Commission on Geography of Governance’s Annual Conference

Charlotte Escorne & Hugo Estecahandy at the IGU’s Commission on Geography of Governance’s Annual Conference

IGU
17 August 2021

Authors

On June 24, 2021, Charlotte Escorne and Hugo Estecahandy presented their research at the Commission on Geography of Governance’s Annual Conference.

Hugo Estecahandy spoke in the morning on the topic: “Centralization of power and decentralization technology. Critical analysis of the implementation of blockchain technology in electronic voting solutions in the city of Moscow”.

Charlotte Escorne spoke in the afternoon to present her research on “The deployment of 5G in Africa: a technological lever to improve local development?”.

Partager l'actualité
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn

Hugo Estecahandy & Kevin Limonier “Cryptocurrencies and processing power in Russia: a new strategic territory in eastern Siberia?”

Hugo Estecahandy & Kevin Limonier “Cryptocurrencies and processing power in Russia: a new strategic territory in eastern Siberia?”

Journal of Cyber Policy
17 August 2021

Authors

Discover the paper co-authored by Hugo Estecahandy and Kevin Limonier on “Cryptocurrencies and processing power in Russia: a new strategic territory in eastern Siberia?”, published by The Chatham House & Tandfonline in the Journal of Cyber Policy !

Abstract : This paper analyses the emerging Russian cryptocurrency mining industry, with a particular focus on eastern Siberia. This major strategic industry provides the region with a growing calculation power and fosters potential innovations – in encryption especially. In fact, the crypto-mining industry has noticeably coalesced in eastern Siberia because the region offers a series of geographic, climatic, economic and technical advantages – the magnitude of which is hard to match anywhere else in the world. This article focuses on the oblast of Irkutsk and shows how crypto-mining has come to encompass both economic and political powers and to involve a number of Russian actors and infrastructures. Ultimately, the local dynamics in eastern Siberia teach us a lot about the fate of the industry nationally.

Partager l'actualité
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn

Kevin Limonier “Russia’s African Toolkit: Digital Influence and Entrepreneurs of Influence” – Orbis

Kevin Limonier “Russia’s African Toolkit: Digital Influence and Entrepreneurs of Influence” – Orbis

ORBIS
18 June 2021

Author

Discover the article written by Kevin Limonier and Marlene Laruelle on “Russia’s African Toolkit: Digital Influence and Entrepreneurs of Influence”

Abstract : Today, Russian influence on the African continent is still anecdotic compared to the People’s Republic of China, the United States, and former colonial powers, such as France. Yet, Moscow has committed to reasserting itself as an alternative pole of influence to China and Western countries in the eyes of some African elites. This article analyzes two key components of Russia’s African toolkit: its media outlets such as RT and Sputnik, which have managed to impose themselves on the African media landscape, and its entrepreneurs of influence, in charge of influence campaigns of different scopes. The article contends that Russia’s media success relies more on the appropriation of its informational content by African actors with their own political agendas than on Moscow convincing African audiences of the legitimacy of its foreign policy or political model, and that entrepreneurs of influence may play a useful, but limited, role in testing new parameters of influence.

Retrouvez l’article en entier ici !

Partager l'actualité
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn

Ilan Scialom at the Gulf Information Security Expo & Conference – GISEC

Ilan Scialom at the Gulf Information Security Expo & Conference – GISEC

GISEC
31 May 2021

Author

On the occasion of the GISEC international cybersecurity exhibition, which took place in Dubai from June 31 to 2, 2021, Ilan Scialom presented the geopolitical and cyber impacts of the normalization agreements, known as the Abraham Accords, between Israel and the United Arab Emirates. 

After explaining that cooperation between the two states has existed for many years, he returned to the emergence of cyber and technological partnerships at various levels – state, private. This major trend may in the medium term announce a shift in geopolitical dynamics in the Middle East with major implications for other States in the region.

Partager l'actualité
Share on twitter
Twitter
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn